Hemophilia B is a leading target for gene therapy because current therapy is not optimal. Hence, a murine model of factor IX (F. IX) deficiency was generated to develop gene therapy strategies for hemophilia B. A targeting vector was created by replacing a 3.2-kb segment of the gene encompassing the catalytic domain with a phosphoglycerokinase promoter-driven neomycin resistant (neor) gene cassette. The transfected embryonic stem cell clones generated chimeric male mice, and germ line transmission of the inactivated F. IX gene was observed in their offsprings. Southern analysis confirmed the mutant genotype in hemizygous male and carrier female mice. F. IX transcripts were not detected in liver RNA isolated from hemizygous mice, and lower levels of F. IX mRNA were noted in carrier female mice when compared with those of normal litter mates. As expected, the mean F. IX coagulant titer of affected male mice was 2.8 U/dL (n = 10), while the mean F. IX titer of carrier female mice was 35 U/dL (n = 14), compared with 69 U/dL (n = 9) for the normal female mice and 92 U/dL (n = 22) for normal male and female litter mates. Further, the tail bleeding time of hemizygous mice was markedly prolonged (>3 hours) compared with those of normal and carrier female litter mates (15 to 20 minutes). Seven of 19 affected male mice died of exsanguination after tail snipping, and two affected mice died of umbilical cord bleeding. Currently, there are 10 affected mice surviving at 4 months of age. Aside from the factor IX defect, the carrier female and hemizygous male mice had no liver pathology by histologic examination, were fertile, and transmitted the F. IX gene mutation in the expected Mendelian frequency. Taken together, we have generated a F. IX knockout mouse for evaluation of novel gene therapy strategies for hemophilia B.