We studied the detectability of narrow band random noise targets embedded in narrow band random noise backgrounds as a function of differences in center frequency, spatial frequency bandwidth and orientation bandwidth between target and the immediately adjacent background. Unlike most target detection experiments the targets were not added to the background; they replaced the underlying background texture. Simulations showed that target detection probabilities could be accounted for by a simple transformation on the summed outputs of a two layer filter model similar to the complex channels model proposed by Graham, Beck and Sutter (Graham, N., Beck, J., & Sutter, A. (1992). Vision Research, 32, 719-743). Subsequently, the model was tested on the detection of camouflaged vehicle targets with encouraging results.