The CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response against T. cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, are relevant for both parasite control and disease pathogenesis. Several studies have been focused on their phenotype and functionally, but only a few have drilled down to identify the parasite proteins that are processed and presented to these cells, especially to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Although approximately 10,000 proteins are encoded per haploid T. cruzi genome, fewer than 200 T cell epitopes from 49 T. cruzi proteins have been identified so far. In this context, a detailed knowledge of the specific targets of T cell memory response emerges as a prime tool for the conceptualization and development of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, an approach with great potential to prevent and treat this chronic disease. Here, we review the available information about this topic in a comprehensive manner and discuss the future challenges in the field.