Among a large number of cow insulin-specific T cell clones derived from both C57BL/10 and B10.A strains, several were found to react to non-MHC-linked gene products of a number of allogeneic strains. The stimulatory moiety for three of these clones correlates, in part, with expression of Mlsc, as defined by mouse strains C3H/HeJ and A/J. In addition, all three of these clones are stimulated by cells from strain PL/J, which has the poorly defined Mlsx allele. The data strongly suggest that Mlsx may, in fact, be Mlsc or is, at least, highly cross-reactive with Mlsc. Segregation analysis by using (B10.D2 X PL/J)F2 mice demonstrates that the Mlsx gene is genetically independent of the Mlsa linked Ly-9 marker on chromosome 1. Further studies with the use of these Mlsc,x-reactive clones reveal that they also recognize a gene product present in many mouse strains including DBA/2 which were previously phenotyped as Mlsa. However, testing of BxD recombinant inbred lines excludes Mlsa as being the stimulatory moiety. We therefore propose reclassification of the Mls phenotypes of several mouse strains based upon a two-locus model for Mls.