For chronic pain, opioid analgesics provide benefit for up to 9 weeks (level 2). For chronic low back pain, the evidence shows that various types of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are equally effective or ineffective, and that antidepressants provide no benefit in the short to intermediate term (level 2). Muscle relaxants showed limited effectiveness (level 3) for chronic neck pain and for chronic low back pain for up to 4 weeks. For fibromyalgia, there is limited evidence (level 3) of the effectiveness of amitryptiline, ondansetron, zoldipem, or growth hormone, and evidence of no effectiveness for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, malic acid with magnesium, calcitonin injections, or s-adenyl-L-methionine. For temporomandibular pain, oral sumatriptan is not effective (level 2). The remaining evidence was inadequate (level 4a) or contradictory (level 4b).