Clinical interpretation of the results of the review is difficult because few studies could be synthesized and conclusions made. The published evidence suggests that a large proportion of women with USI can be correctly identified in primary care from history alone. Ultrasound offers a useful diagnostic tool which could be used prior to, and possibly instead of, multi-channel urodynamics in some circumstances. If a patient is to undergo urodynamic testing, multi-channel urodynamics is likely to give the most accurate result. Further primary studies adhering to STARD guidelines are required on commonly used tests.