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A systematic review of interventions targeting modifiable factors that impact dietary intake in athletes.

Authors
  • Janiczak, Amy1
  • Alcock, Rebekah1, 2
  • Forsyth, Adrienne1, 3
  • Trakman, Gina Louise1
  • 1 Sport, Performance and Nutrition Research Group, Department of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 2 Essendon Football Club, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 3 School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
British Journal Of Nutrition
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Publication Date
Jan 28, 2024
Volume
131
Issue
2
Pages
229–247
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114523001769
PMID: 37559383
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Appropriate dietary intake has been found to positively impact athletes' performance, body composition and recovery from exercise. Strategies to optimise dietary intake often involve targeting one or more of the many factors that are known to influence dietary intake. This review aims to investigate the types and effectiveness of interventions used to impact modifiable factors of dietary intake in athletes. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2022 for intervention studies that measured dietary intake with a quantitative tool and explored at least one factor thought to influence the dietary intake of adult athletes. Study quality was assessed using the ADA Quality Criteria Checklist: Primary Research. Twenty-four studies were included. The most common interventions focused on nutrition education (n 10), macronutrient adjustment (n 7) and physical activity (n 5). The three most common factors thought to influence dietary intake addressed were nutrition knowledge (n 12), hunger and appetite (n 8), and body composition (n 4). Significant changes in dietary intake were found in sixteen studies, with nutrition education interventions returning significant results in the largest proportion of studies (n 8). Study quality within this review was mostly average (n 4 < 50 %, n 19 50-80 %, n 1 > 80 %). As studies included were published between 1992 and 2021, interventions and factors explored in older studies may require up-to-date research to investigate possible differences in results due to time-related confounders.

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