Human phagocytic leukocytes express the seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and FPR-like 1 (FPRL1). MMK-1, a synthetic peptide derived from a random peptide library, is reported to induce calcium mobilization specifically in human FPRL1 gene-transfected cells. However, its actions on human phagocytic leukocytes remain poorly defined. We found that MMK-1 is a potent chemotactic and calcium-mobilizing agonist for human monocytes, neutrophils, and FPRL1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells but is inactive in cells transfected with FPR. MMK-1 also activated HEK 293 cells transfected with FPR2, a mouse counterpart of human FPRL1. Furthermore, MMK-1 increased pertussis toxin-sensitive production of inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes. MMK-1 signaling in human phagocytes was completely desensitized by a well-defined FPRL1 agonist, suggesting that FPRL1 is likely a receptor that mediates the action of MMK-1 in primary cells. Since MMK-1 is one of the most potent FPRL1-specific agonists identified so far, it can serve as a modulator of the host defense and a useful agent for further studying the signaling and function of FPRL1.