In order to alter the fluorescence properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP), aromatic non-natural amino acids were introduced into the Tyr66 position of GFP in a cell-free translation system using a four-base codon method. Two non-natural mutants (O-methyltyrosine and p-aminophenylalanine mutants) out of 18 mutants showed blue-shifted but weak fluorescence compared with wild-type GFP. Then the aminophenylalanine mutant was sequence optimized by introducing random mutations around the Tyr66 site. For this purpose, a method for random mutation of non-natural proteins in a cell-free system was developed. Three aminophenylalanine mutants with Y145F, Y145L and Y145 M mutations were obtained, which exhibited increased fluorescence by 1.5-, 3- and 4-fold, respectively. These results indicate that random mutation around non-natural amino acids is useful strategy in order to improve protein functions that are reduced by non-natural amino acid incorporation. The method described here will be applicable to other non-natural mutant proteins in a high-throughput manner.