EuS nanoparticles were synthesized by the thermal reduction of single source precursor (SSP), (PPh4)[Eu(S2CNEt2)4].2H2O, under microwave irradiation. The average size of the EuS nanoparticles was found to be 8 nm (3-16 nm in size). The organic products on the EuS surface were observed by using FT-IR, NMR, and MS analyses. We have found that these are resulted from the chemical reactions of SSP and cover the nanocrystal surface. A thermal reaction of SSP gave EuS nanoparticles and the organic product (*SCN(Et)2). The organic product would make a dimmer, (Et)2NC(S)-(S)CN(Et)2, by the couping of the radicals formed in the thermal reaction and/or thiopolymer in the solution through the polymerization of the radicals. The effective surface modification by the organic products led to protection of the EuS surface, resulting in the formation of the strongly luminescent EuS nanoparticles at room temperature (emission peak = 350 nm, fwhm = 58 nm, emission quantum yield = 27 +/- 5%).