The biosynthesis and processing of cellulase from ripening avocado fruit was studied. The mature protein is a glycoprotein, as judged by concanavalin A binding, with a molecular weight of 54,200. Upon complete deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethane sulfonic acid the mature protein has a molecular weight of 52,800 whereas the immunoprecipitated in vitro translation product has a molecular weight of 54,000. This result indicates that cellulase is synthesized as a large molecular weight precursor, which presumably possesses a short-lived signal peptide. A membrane-associated and heavily glycosylated form of the protein was also identified. This putative secretory precursor was enzymically active and the carbohydrate side chains were sensitive to endoglycosidase H cleavage. Results of partial endoglycosidase H digestion suggest that this precursor form of the mature glycoprotein possesses two high-mannose oligosaccharide side chains. The oligosaccharide chains of the mature protein were insensitive to endoglycosidase H cleavage, indicating that transport of the membrane-associated cellulase to the cell wall was accompanied by modification of the oligosaccharide side chains. The presence of a large pool of endoglycosidase H-sensitive membrane-associated cellulase (relative to an endoglycosidase H-insensitive form) suggest that transit of this protein through the Golgi is rapid relative to transit through the endoplasmic reticulum.