Various acetylenic derivatives and acetylated β-D-xylopyranosyl azide or the 5-thio-β-d-xylopyranosyl analogue were coupled by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) to afford a series of 1-xylosyl-4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Controlled oxidation of the endocyclic sulfur atom of the 5-thioxylose moiety led to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. Deacetylation afforded 19 hydroxylated xylose and 5-thioxylose derivatives, found to be only sparingly water-soluble. Compared to glucose-based analogues, they appeared to be much weaker inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase, as the absence of a hydroxymethyl group weakens their binding at the enzyme active site. However, such new xylose derivatives might be useful glycomimetics.