Background: This study evaluated the impact of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM I-3446, Bovine Milk-derived OligoSaccharides (BMOS) and their combination on infant gut microbiota in vitro. In addition, a novel strategy consisting of preculturing B. lactis with BMOS to further enhance their potential synbiotic effects was assessed. Method: Short-term fecal batch fermentations (48 h) were used to assess the microbial composition and activity modulated by BMOS alone, B. lactis grown on BMOS or dextrose alone, or their combinations on different three-month-old infant microbiota. Results: BMOS alone significantly induced acetate and lactate production (leading to pH decrease) and stimulated bifidobacterial growth in 10 donors. A further in-depth study on two different donors proved B. lactis ability to colonize the infant microbiota, regardless of the competitiveness of the environment. BMOS further enhanced this engraftment, suggesting a strong synbiotic effect. This was also observed at the microbiota activity level, especially in a donor containing low initial levels of bifidobacteria. In this donor, preculturing B. lactis with BMOS strengthened further the early modulation of microbiota activity observed after 6 h. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the strong synbiotic effect of BMOS and B. lactis on the infant gut microbiota, and suggests a strategy to improve its effectiveness in an otherwise low- Bifidobacterium microbiota.