The axon hillock (AH) and initial segment (IS) of 10 Golgi neurons and 6 basket cells in the cerebellar cortex of the rat were investigated by electron microscopy using serial sections. An average of 10.4 and 11.3 synaptic terminals were observed to establish synaptic contact with the axon hillock region of Golgi and basket cells, respectively. Most of these terminals were identified as the varicosities of the ascending parallel fibers. It is suggested that the focal innervation of AH regions represents an excitatory input pattern which is basically different from the randomly distributed, huge, parallel-fiber input onto the dendritic trees of Golgi and basket cells. In contrast to Golgi and basket neurons, no accumulation of parallel-fiber synapses was observed around the AH of stellate cell. The IS proper of the three neuronal types were devoid of true axo-axonal synapses.