The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been increasing in Japan. Although the diagnosis of EoE is based on simple criteria that include the presence of esophageal symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia on biopsies, there are several important issues associated with the diagnostic approach. Following an extensive literature search, the symptoms of 886 EoE cases in Japanese adults were analyzed and divided into three categories as follows: (1) typical symptoms, such as dysphagia (53%); (2) other upper GI symptoms (40%); and (3) no symptoms found during screening or medical examination, i.e., “asymptomatic esophageal eosinophilia” (19%). The diagnostic approach was reviewed according to these categories as well as according to the presence or absence of esophageal eosinophilia. The present manuscript describes the current therapeutic strategy of EoE and ultimately proposes a symptom-based diagnostic approach for EoE.