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Symptom Level Associations Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and School Performance.

Authors
  • Rigoni, Megan1
  • Blevins, Lynn Zanardi2
  • Rettew, David C3, 4
  • Kasehagen, Laurin1, 3, 5
  • 1 Vermont Department of Health, Burlington, VT, USA.
  • 2 University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.
  • 3 University of Vermont, Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA.
  • 4 Vermont Department of Mental Health, Waterbury, VT, USA.
  • 5 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Field Support Branch, MCH Epidemiology Program Team, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Clinical Pediatrics
Publisher
SAGE Publications
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2020
Volume
59
Issue
9-10
Pages
874–884
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/0009922820924692
PMID: 32441129
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced school performance. To determine which ADHD symptoms and subtypes have the strongest association, we used type and frequency of symptoms on the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA) to create symptom scores for inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and define subtypes (ADHD-Inattentive [ADHD-I], ADHD-Hyperactive-Impulsive, ADHD-Combined [ADHD-C]). Regression methods were used to examine associations between symptoms and subtype and a composite measure of school performance. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-I had higher adjusted odds of having reduced overall school performance (ADHD-C = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1-10.9; ADHD-I = 5.5, 95% CI = 3.1-10.1) compared with children without ADHD. All inattentive symptoms were significantly related to reduced school performance in reading, writing, and handwriting, while 6 of 9 symptoms were significantly associated in mathematics. Children with ADHD-I were significantly more likely than children with other ADHD subtypes to receive a school-based Individualized Education Program or 504 Plan. ADHD-I symptoms may be broadly linked to reduced school performance.

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