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Sustained Minimal Residual Disease Negativity in Multiple Myeloma is Associated with Stool Butyrate and Healthier Plant-Based Diets.

  • Shah, Urvi A
  • Maclachlan, Kylee H
  • Derkach, Andriy
  • Salcedo, Meghan
  • Barnett, Kelly
  • Caple, Julia
  • Blaslov, Jenna
  • Tran, Linh
  • Ciardiello, Amanda
  • Burge, Miranda
  • Shekarkhand, Tala
  • Adintori, Peter
  • Cross, Justin
  • Pianko, Matthew J
  • Hosszu, Kinga
  • McAvoy, Devin
  • Mailankody, Sham
  • Korde, Neha
  • Hultcrantz, Malin
  • Hassoun, Hani
  • And 18 more
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2022
eScholarship - University of California
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PurposeSustained minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity is associated with long-term survival in multiple myeloma. The gut microbiome is affected by diet, and in turn can modulate host immunity, for example through production of short-chain fatty acids including butyrate. We hypothesized that dietary factors affect the microbiome (abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria or stool butyrate concentration) and may be associated with multiple myeloma outcomes.Experimental designWe examined the relationship of dietary factors (via a food frequency questionnaire), stool metabolites (via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and the stool microbiome (via 16S sequencing - α-diversity and relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria) with sustained MRD negativity (via flow cytometry at two timepoints 1 year apart) in myeloma patients on lenalidomide maintenance. The Healthy Eating Index 2015 score and flavonoid nutrient values were calculated from the food frequency questionnaire. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to evaluate associations with two-sided P < 0.05 considered significant.ResultsAt 3 months, higher stool butyrate concentration (P = 0.037), butyrate producers (P = 0.025), and α-diversity (P = 0.0035) were associated with sustained MRD negativity. Healthier dietary proteins, (from seafood and plants), correlated with butyrate at 3 months (P = 0.009) and sustained MRD negativity (P = 0.05). Consumption of dietary flavonoids, plant nutrients with antioxidant effects, correlated with stool butyrate concentration (anthocyanidins P = 0.01, flavones P = 0.01, and flavanols P = 0.02).ConclusionsThis is the first study to demonstrate an association between a plant-based dietary pattern, stool butyrate production, and sustained MRD negativity in multiple myeloma, providing rationale to evaluate a prospective dietary intervention.

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