Porous carbon materials with tunable porosities and functionalities represent an important class of CO2 sorbents. The development of porous carbons from various types of biomass is a sustainable, economic and environmentally friendly strategy. Wood is a biodegradable, renewable, sustainable, naturally abundant and carbon-rich raw material. Given these advantages, the use of wood-based resources for the synthesis of functional porous carbons has attracted great interests. In this mini-review, we present the recent developments regarding sustainable porous carbons derived from wood-based biopolymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) and their application in CO2 capture.