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Sustainable, healthy cities: protocol of a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial for Aedes control in Brazil using a community mobilization approach

  • Zinszer, Kate1, 2, 3
  • Caprara, Andrea3
  • Lima, Antonio4, 5
  • Degroote, Stéphanie6
  • Zahreddine, Monica1
  • Abreu, Kellyanne3
  • Carabali, Mabel7
  • Charland, Katia1
  • Dantas, Mayana Azevedo3
  • Wellington, José3
  • Parra, Beatriz8
  • Fournet, Florence6
  • Bonnet, Emmanuel6
  • Pérez, Denis1, 9
  • Robert, Emilie10
  • Dagenais, Christian1
  • Benmarhnia, Tarik11
  • Andersson, Neil7, 12
  • Ridde, Valéry6
  • 1 University of Montreal, Montréal, Québec, Canada , Montréal (Canada)
  • 2 Québec Public Health Research Centre, Montréal, Canada , Montréal (Canada)
  • 3 Québec Population Health Research Network, Montréal, Canada , Montréal (Canada)
  • 4 Fortaleza Municipal Health Secretariat, Fortaleza, Brazil , Fortaleza (Brazil)
  • 5 University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Brazil , Fortaleza (Brazil)
  • 6 French Institute for Research on Sustainable Development, Paris, France , Paris (France)
  • 7 McGill University, Montréal, Canada , Montréal (Canada)
  • 8 Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia , Cali (Colombia)
  • 9 Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute, Havana, Cuba , Havana (Cuba)
  • 10 SHERPA Research Centre, Montréal, Canada , Montréal (Canada)
  • 11 University of California, San Diego, USA , San Diego (United States)
  • 12 Universidad Autonomy De Guerrero, Acapulco, Mexico , Acapulco (Mexico)
Published Article
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Feb 14, 2020
DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-3714-8
Springer Nature


BackgroundDengue is increasing in its global presence with an estimated 4 billion people at-risk of infection in at least 128 countries. Despite the promising results of EcoHealth and community mobilization approaches to Aedes reduction, more evidence of their efficacy on reducing dengue risk is needed. The principal research question is to determine if interventions based upon community mobilization reduce the risk of dengue virus infection among children 3 to 9 years old compared to usual dengue control practice in Fortaleza, Brazil.MethodsThe present study will follow a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) design with randomization at the census tract level with equal allocation to the two arms. In each arm, there will be 34 clusters of 86 children between 3 to 9 years old for an expected total of 5848 children enrolled in the study, assuming a risk reduction of 29.5% based upon findings from a previous multi-site cRCT. The primary outcomes are rates of anti-dengue Immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroconversion and adult female Aedes density. The intervention is based upon a participatory health research approach, Socializing Evidence for Participatory Action (SEPA), where the research evidence is used to foster community engagement and ownership of the health issue and solution. Following allocation, intervention communities will develop and implement their own solutions that will likely include a wide variety of collective events and media approaches. Data collection activities over a period of 3 years include household visits for blood collection, household surveys, and entomological surveys; and qualitative activities including focus groups, in-depth interviews, and document analysis to evaluate the process, acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the intervention. Study participants will be aware of their assignment and all research staff will be blinded although the intervention assignment will likely be revealed to field staff through interaction with participants.DiscussionThe results of our study will provide evidence on community mobilization as an intervention for dengue control. We anticipate that if community mobilization is effective in Fortaleza, the results of this study will help develop evidence-based vector control programs in Brazil, and also in other countries struggling with Aedes-transmitted diseases.Trial registrationISRCTN66131315, registration date: 1 October 2018.

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