Fresh samples of mullet (Mugil cephalus) and oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps) obtained from a fish market were subjected to cold smoking. Some of the samples harboured low levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. After cold smoking, however, many samples showed relatively high levels of V. parahaemolyticus suggesting that a small population of naturally occurring organisms could multiply to significant levels during the process of cold smoking or during subsequent storage at room temperature. Nevertheless, smoke components were observed to exert an inhibitory effect on V. parahaemolyticus in broth. Salt concentration 1% appeared to increase the sensitivity of V. parahaemolyticus to smoke components.