This article reports on a field survey conducted in salt lakes in southwest Siberia in the period 2000-2003. A total of 46 lakes were sampled; the highest sampling effort was made in the Kurgan region. Data were collected on general topography, salinity, ion composition, and temperature regime. Primary production was assessed by measuring water transparency and by determining phytoplankton species composition and density. The survey focused on the local Artemia populations: cyst and naupliar biometrics and adult morphometrics, and study of population dynamics. Based on these field data, an estimation was made of the available standing crop of cysts. Generally, the Artemia salt lakes in southwest Siberia are relatively small and shallow, and thus subject to major seasonal and annual fluctuations. In extreme conditions, they may temporarily turn into brackish water bodies or nearly entirely desiccate. Production (both primary and secondary) is generally low or moderate, except for relatively deep Bolshoye Yarovoye lake (Altay area). However, because of the high number of lakes, the area has commercial importance to cover a portion of the domestic need for Artemia cysts. Parthenogenetic populations dominate in the area; the species status of the few bisexual populations still needs to be established.