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Surprise!

Authors
  • Cole, Stephen R
  • Edwards, Jessie K
  • Greenland, Sander
Type
Published Article
Journal
American journal of epidemiology
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2021
Volume
190
Issue
2
Pages
191–193
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwaa136
PMID: 32648906
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Measures of information and surprise, such as the Shannon information value (S value), quantify the signal present in a stream of noisy data. We illustrate the use of such information measures in the context of interpreting P values as compatibility indices. S values help communicate the limited information supplied by conventional statistics and cast a critical light on cutoffs used to judge and construct those statistics. Misinterpretations of statistics may be reduced by interpreting P values and interval estimates using compatibility concepts and S values instead of "significance" and "confidence." © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: [email protected]

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