A 67-year-old man with positive serum reaction for syphilis had been followed by cardiologist for his moderate-sized saccular ascending aortic aneurysm and small-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm. Because of his transient ischemic attack probably secondary to the thrombo-embolism of the aneurysm and rapid growing of its size, surgical treatment was recommended. Resection of the saccular aneurysm with patch plasty of the ascending aorta was performed under the cardiopulmonary bypass associated with right side cerebral perfusion. At the time of operation, the mildly dilated ascending aorta and arch with multiple intimal ulceration were noted. Although his postoperative hemodynamic condition was stable, he suffered from multiple cerebral infarction, probably due to embolism migrated from the fragile aortic intima. His neurological condition was improved promptly, trivial hemi-paralysis was remained. The specimen of resected aneurysmal wall revealed syphilitic changes microscopically. We concluded that the extent of the aortic replacement with prosthetic graft should be deceived not only with its external appearance, but also with the changes of its inside.