From 1974 to 1990, 61 patients were admitted for pulmonary (55) or bronchial (6) aspergilloma; 50 were treated by surgery. Operative treatment was mandatory because of disabling symptoms in 17 patients, rapid growth on radiological survey in 7 others, diagnostic doubt in 10 and association with bronchogenic cancer in 2. 14 were operated on in order to prevent evolutive complications. Complete resection was possible in 39 patients: with lobectomy or segmentectomy in 34 and with pleuro-pneumonectomy in 5. In 10 others, respiratory failure only allowed speleotomy and thoracoplasty. One thoracotomy was exploratory because of an associated unresectable cancer. Postoperative complications frequently occurred with pulmonary aspergilloma: 4 postoperative deaths, 33 experienced non-fatal complications (28 major bleedings, 16 rehabititation defects, 6 empyemas, 5 respiratory failures). Nevertheless, among 10 patients with either bronchial aspergilloma or pulmonary aspergilloma without underlying disease, only one had a complicated outcome. In conclusion, surgical treatment is well tolerated in the absence of underlying parenchymal disease. However, despite the major operative risk, surgery remains the only efficient treatment in symptomatic patients.