Experimental transplantation of vascularized canine knee joints has so far been associated with high complication rates in both auto- and allografts. We have now compared 4 autografts and 4 allografts that were successfully performed at our institution. This report details our surgical technique. Stable internal fixation enabling immediate postoperative weight bearing, microsurgical end-to-end anastomoses of popliteal artery and vein and postoperative control of immunosuppression in transplanted animals are crucial. Thus, an interdisciplinary approach of experts in microsurgery, orthopedic and trauma surgery and immunologists appears to be a prerequisite for successful joint transplantation.