An extensive literature search covering the last 35 years was undertaken to retrieve all English language articles reporting results of surgical management of acquired, comitant, nonaccommodative and partially accommodative esotropia. Thirty-nine studies were found, but only 15 met the minimum criteria which we established for inclusion in our analysis. The functional success rate was 15% in 1170 patients, while the overall cosmetic success rate was 43% in 1473 patients. Direct comparison to optometric studies is not possible since the criteria for success used in surgical studies are considerably different. The most prevalent complication is the need for reoperation as a result of consecutive exotropia. The data indicate that an end result of consecutive exotropia is almost as likely as a functional cure.