BackgroundEndoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) is the established treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones. Although pancreatitis and bleeding have been reported as major complications of EBD, balloon-related complications are rarely reported in EBD.Case presentationA 30-year-old woman with suspected CBD stones underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and EBD. During EBD, the balloon of the EBD catheter suddenly burst at the biliary sphincter. We therefore performed surgical intervention: removal of the broken EBD catheter and T-tube drainage. Finally, the patient was discharged without any complications.ConclusionsWe present a case involving a burst balloon of an EBD catheter as a rare complication during EBD, as well as the surgical technique that was used to treat this complication.