Between 1983 and 1996., 79 patients'--operated on for pulmonary aspergilloma--clinical data has been analysed. The patients were comprised of 67 males and 12 females, with a mean age of 49 years (range, 24 to 69). Previous lung disorders were observed in about half of the cases (most frequently tuberculosis), while in the other half aspergilloma was developed on the basis of (sub)-acute infections. The most common symptom was haemoptysis (in 45% of cases). Aspergilloma was diagnosed preoperatively (especially by typical chest x-ray) in 62 patients. In the other cases tb, lung cancer, pyosclerosis were suspected. 67 patients underwent pulmonary resection (50 lobectomies, 12 wedge resections, 5 pneumonectomies), 12 cavities were opened by cavernostomy. The postoperative mortality rate was 10.1%. The most frequent complications were bleeding, prolonged air leak, pleural rest space, empyema, bronchial fistula and wound infection, which were occurred in cases with bigger cavities near chest wall. In most cases with pulmonary aspergilloma surgery remains the only effective treatment. Operation has a lower risk in asymptomatic patients, without chest wall involvement. In several cases cavernostomy might be applied successfully.