Phthisiosurgery is a medical field in which Russia is in the lead. Today indications for surgical treatment of different forms of pulmonary tuberculosis and principles in choosing various surgical interventions can be forwarded with certainty. Surgery can effectively treat patients with large and multiple caverns, tuberculomas, caseous intrathoracic lymphadenitis and various complications of pulmonary tuberculosis which cannot be eliminated by using antibacterial therapy. Extremely long antibacterial therapy for tuberculosis is frequently inadvisable. While using the strategically required standardized antibiotic treatment regimens, therapeutical policy should be individual for each patient. A protocol for patients with tuberculosis should be agreed upon with a thoracic surgeon if antibacterial therapy is ineffective or low effective and if patients have irreversible or low-reversible morphological changes in the chest organs.