With the definition over the past 15 years of the altered immune state of surgical patients as a result of disease itself and surgical therapy, there have been multiple approaches to the modulation of immune status in experimental or clinical situations, but with conflicting or unhelpful results. The variable that has never been assessed is the significance of the surgeon as an immunomodulator. The expediency and the quality of the surgical act in a variety of surgical diseases have a positive effect on the immune system. Indeed, the data indicate that correction of shock, drainage of infection, excision or drainage of necrotic material, restoration of body composition, and solid basic care all have a positive influence on patients' immune responses. An immunomodulator might get credit if the role of surgical care is not properly assessed. A framework for the study of immunomodulators with the integration of clinical behavior is outlined.