The use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to delineate between the breast epithelial cell lines MCF10A, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231 is explored utilizing varied morphologies of gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles studied had spherical, star-like, and quasi-fractal (nanocaltrop) morphologies and possessed varying degrees of surface inhomogeneity and complexity. The efficacy of Raman enhancement of these nanoparticles was a function of their size, their surface morphology, and the associated density of "hot spots," as well as their cellular uptake. The spherical and star-like nanoparticles provided strong signal enhancement that allowed for the discernment among the three cell phenotypes based solely on the acquired Raman spectra. The presence of overlapping Raman band spectral regions, as well as unique spectral bands, suggests that the underlying biological differences between these cells can be accessed without the need for tagging the nanoparticles or for specific cell targeting, demonstrating the potential ubiquity of this technique in imaging any cancer. This work provides clear evidence for the potential application of SERS as a tool for mapping cancerous lesions, possibly during surgery and under histopathological analysis.