Results are presented that demonstrate the successful preparation of ultrathin (< 10 nm), surface-confined, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films on model gold substrates using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). 2-Vinylpyridine (2Vpy) was investigated as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was the cross-linking monomer. Fluorescently labeled N,N'-didansyl-L-cystine and N,N'-didansyl-L-lysine were used as the template molecules to form the MIPs. Spectroscopic and ellipsometric results are presented that follow film formation and growth rates. Results are also presented from fluorescence experiments used to quantify and compare the adsorption capacities of MIP surface films and nonimprinted (NIP) control films. MIP films exhibited higher binding capacities than the control NIP films at all solution concentrations of N,N'-didansyl-L-cystine and N,N'-didansyl-L-lysine. Furthermore, template removal from these imprinted films appears to be 100% efficient. Selectivity studies showed that the MIPs display some cross-reactivity between these two molecules; nevertheless, MIPs prepared against one template showed selectivity for that template. A selectivity coefficient of 1.13 was achieved for MIP surfaces prepared against N,N'-didansyl-L-lysine; a value of 1.51 was observed for MIP surfaces prepared against N,N'-didansyl-L-cystine.