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Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

Authors
  • Stone, Harry1
  • See, David2
  • Smiley, Autumn2
  • Ellingson, Anthony2
  • Schimmoeller, Jessica2
  • Oudejans, Lukas3
  • 1 Battelle, 10300 Alliance Rd. Suite 155, Cincinnati, OH 45242, USA.
  • 2 Battelle, 1425 Plain City-Georgesville, West Jefferson, OH 43162, USA.
  • 3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Homeland Security Research Center, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Mail Code: E343-06, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of hazardous materials
Publication Date
Aug 15, 2016
Volume
314
Pages
59–66
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.04.020
PMID: 27107236
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness.

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