The supramolecular polymeric radicals are developed to promote the generation efficiency and stability of naphthalenediimide (NDI) radical anions. To this end, a water-soluble bifunctional monomer bearing two naphthalene-viologen end groups and a NDI center is designed and synthesized. The supramolecular polymeric NDI radical anions are fabricated on the basis of host-guest complexation between the NDI-containing bifunctional monomer and cucurbituril (CB) and followed by the photoinduced electron transfer process under UV light irradiation. The electrostatic effect of CB and the bulky and rigid structure of supramolecular polymer are combined to stabilize the excited state of NDIs and NDI radical anions, contributing to the high enhancement of the formation of NDI radical anions with excellent stability. It is found that the highest occupied molecular orbital energy and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy of NDI are also lowered by the formation of supramolecular polymer. In addition, the supramolecular polymeric NDI radical anions could be utilized as a supramolecular photoreducing agent to reduce cytochrome C with a higher efficiency. It is anticipated that other radicals can also be stabilized through this strategy, and this line of research may lead to the development of novel polymeric radical materials. © 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.