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Suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) by heparin in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biochemical Pharmacology
0006-2952
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
66
Issue
5
Pages
769–776
Identifiers
PMID: 12948857
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Heparin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, but mechanisms remain elusive. Because heparin inhibits signaling through multiple kinase cascades, we investigated the possibility that phosphatases could be involved. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) was the predominant MKP detected in VSMC lines. MKP-1 protein was increased by serum stimulation of quiescent cells, and this increase was diminished by heparin (1 microg/mL). Increased MKP-1 expression was dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase, Erk. Decreased Erk activity in the presence of heparin preceded, and may account for, decreased MKP-1. The antimitogenic effects of heparin are therefore unlikely to act through a shift in the kinase/phosphatase balance, but rather through direct kinase suppression. However, because MKP-1 is known to cause an increase in activity of kinases upstream of Erk, that may signal through additional pathways, the decrease in MKP-1 activity may paradoxically enhance heparin's antiproliferative effects. VSMC selected to grow in the presence of heparin express decreased levels of MKP-1 that are unresponsive to heparin, and Erk activity becomes unresponsive to heparin in one cell line. We conclude that phosphatase activation is not a direct mechanism of suppression of multiple kinase cascades by heparin.

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