Background and Objective This study was aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of Momordica charantia (MCh), along with a standard drug prednisolone, in a rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Methods After the induction of the experimental colitis, the animals were treated with MCh (4 g/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days by intragastric gavage. The colonic tissue expression levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 (CCL-17), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-23, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were determined at both mRNA and protein levels to estimate the effect of MCh. Besides, colonic specimens were analyzed histopathologically after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Results The body weights from TNBS-instigated colitis rats were found to be significantly lower than untreated animals. Also, the IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, Il-23, TNF-α, CCL-17, and NF-kB mRNA and protein levels were increased significantly from 1.86-4.91-fold and 1.46-5.50-fold, respectively, in the TNBS-instigated colitis group as compared to the control. Both the MCh and prednisolone treatment significantly reduced the bodyweight loss. It also restored the induced colonic tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α to normal levels seen in untreated animals. These results were also supported with the histochemical staining of the colonic tissues from both control and treated animals. Conclusion The presented data strongly suggests that MCh has the anti-inflammatory effect that might be modulated through vitamin D metabolism. It is the right candidate for the treatment of UC as an alternative and complementary therapeutics.