A study was designed to evaluate the superovulatory response in the cow when either estradiol 17beta or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was used in a superovulatory regimen with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P). Fifty-four cyclic crossbred females were superovulated in replicates between Days 8 and 12 of their cycle. All animals were treated with 28 mg of FSH-P in twice-daily decreasing doses, each receiving 500 mug cloprostenol (PGF) 48 h after initiation of treatment. Group 1 served as FSH-P controls, Group 2 received FSH-P and 400 mug of estradiol 17beta 36 h after PGF, and Group 3 received FSH-P and 250 mug GnRH 48 h after PGF. Inseminations with one vial of frozen semen were done at 12, 24 and 36 h after the onset of estrus. Ova/embryos were collected nonsurgically at Day 7 postestrus. Numbers of corpora lutea (CL) were recorded after palpation per rectum and the recovered ova and embryos were evaluated. All females were bled for endocrine examination. There were no differences in ovarian response among these treatments. Mean total ova/embryos collected in Group 3 was significantly higher than in Groups 1 or 2 (P < 0.05); however, no significant difference existed between groups in the mean numbers of fertilized or transferable embryos. Similarly, no significant differences existed between groups for recovery rate, fertilization rate, or percentage of transferable embryos. Serum estradiol levels were significantly higher at the expected end of ovulation in Group 2, and this tended to be associated with higher fertilization and transferable embryo rates. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found to exist between CL numbers and each of the ova/embryo parameters and the estradiol levels at estrus.