The burgeoning developments of portable electronics and electric vehicles call for continual improvement of electrochemical energy storage technologies. Owing to their rich abundance and versatile oxidation states, various sulfur species (such as molecular sulfur, metal sulfides, metal polysulfides, and polymerised sulfur species) have been studied in a wide spectrum of energy storage systems. In this review, sulfur-based redox chemistries for electrochemical energy storage are coherently analysed, covering the redox mechanism of processes based on conversion, intercalation/deintercalation, cleavage/formation of S-S bonds and combinations of them. Instead of updating the advances of a specific battery system or material, this review focuses on a comprehensive framework for sulfur-based redox chemistries in electrochemical energy storage. Innovative ideas may arise by sharing learning between related areas. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.