This case report is about an Australian Army aircrewman who developed a sudden incapacitating visual disturbance. The case study explores the investigation pathway, differential diagnoses and the aeromedical implications. Although not all cases of visual disturbance have an underlying ophthalmological or neurological cause, and in fact might be quite benign, there is a possibility of a serious pathology of vascular or ischaemic aetiology affecting fitness to fly and recertification. History, signs, symptoms and investigation results are discussed in the context of the aeromedical handling of the case, and eventual return to flying duties after a restriction period. Unusual facets and possible contributors in this case study are the exposure to noxious fumes and vaporised nicotine (e-cigarettes). The implications of the latter are still unexplored in the aviation environment.