The transport of succinate was studied in an effective streptomycin-resistant strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum. High levels of succinate transport occurred when cells were grown on succinate, fumarate, or malate, whereas low activity was found when cells were grown on glucose, sucrose, arabinose, or pyruvate as the sole carbon source. Because of the rapid metabolism of succinate after transport into the cells, a succinate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant was isolated in which intracellular succinate accumulated to over 400 times the external concentration. Succinate transport was completely abolished in the presence of metabolic uncouplers but was relatively insensitive to sodium arsenate. Succinate transport was a saturable function of the succinate concentration, and the apparent Km and Vmax values for transport were determined in both the parent and the succinate dehydrogenase mutant. Malate and fumarate competitively inhibited succinate transport, whereas citrate and malonate had no effect. Succinate transport mutants were isolated by transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis. These mutants were unable to transport succinate or malate and were unable to grow on succinate, malate, or fumarate as the sole carbon source. The mutants grew normally on pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, or arabinose, and revertants isolated on succinate minimal medium had regained the ability to grow on malate and fumarate. From these data, we conclude that R. leguminosarum possesses a C4-dicarboxylic acid transport system which is inducible and mediates the active transport of succinate, fumarate, and malate into the cell.