In this study, WISC-R and WAIS subtest profiles of mentally retarded patients with epilepsy are analysed with respect to the Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancy scores and rank order of mean subtest scores. The relative strengths and weaknesses in cognitive patterns of this sample are compared with subtest profiles mentioned in the literature on mentally retarded populations and samples of normal intelligent patients with epilepsy in order to determine the impact of epilepsy factors on cognition. The results indicate that people with mental retardation have problems with the verbal subtests Arithmetic, Vocabulary and Information, while patients with epilepsy have problems with Coding (Digit Symbol), Digit Span and Information. For this sample of mentally retarded patients with epilepsy, the most difficult subtests are Digit Span and Coding. The results concerning subtest profiles in different populations are discussed in light of the deleterious impact of epilepsy on cognition, which may superimpose the general effect of brain damage in mentally retarded patients. It is suggested that especially attentional processes, as measured with the subtest Coding, are vulnerable for epilepsy factors.