A hospital can take many avenues in dealing with an employee or professional who is impaired by substance abuse or dependence. The most difficult aspect of dealing with the problem is detection. Fortunately, increasing public awareness and concern regarding workplace substance abuse is forcing legislators to address the issue and expose the problem. The legislative response appears to be geared toward treatment and education rather than punishment, which in the opinion of this author is a desirable approach. The pharmacy department can be a valuable asset to the hospital risk manager in detecting diversion of controlled substances and educating employees as to the clinical signs and symptoms of impairment.