Forty-seven patients, who underwent surgery over a 34-year period by the wrapping or coating of ruptured intracranial aneurysms, have been retrospectively evaluated. The following materials were used in the surgical procedures: muscle with gelatin sponge (7 cases), gauze (2 cases), oxidized cellulose with Biobond (28 cases), Histoacryl with gauze or fascia (10 cases). The patients were monitored for up to 37 years (mean, 13.7 +/- 8.2 yr). One or more subsequent bleedings occurred in eight patients (17%). Three patients had additional bleeding and died in the early postoperative phase (within 1 mo after surgery). In five patients, the subsequent bleeding occurred between 1 and 15 years postoperatively, with two fatalities. One patient experienced two recurrences. Therefore, the mortality rate for postoperative bleedings was 10.6% (five patients) in the whole series, and the incidence of early (within 1 mo after surgery) fatal bleedings was 6.4%. After the first month from the initial hemorrhage, the global risk of subsequent bleeding was 0.93%/yr. Among the nine patients whose aneurysms were wrapped with muscle, gelatin sponge, or gauze, four additional bleedings occurred, whereas four relapses were observed among the 38 cases treated by employing bioadhesive agents (P < 0.04; Fisher's exact test). The rate of further bleeding was higher (25%) in patients undergoing surgery in the premicrosurgical era compared with that (8.7%) recorded in patients treated by microsurgery (difference statistically not significant).