We report the direct observations of submacropulse beam centroid oscillations correlated with higher order modes (HOMs) which were generated by off-axis electron beam steering in TESLA-type superconducting rf cavities. The experiments were performed at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility using its unique configuration of a photocathode rf gun injecting beam into two separated nine-cell cavities in series with corrector magnets and beam position monitors (BPMs) located before, between, and after them. Oscillations of ∼100 kHz in the vertical plane and ∼380 kHz in the horizontal plane with up to 600-μm amplitudes were observed in a 3-MHz micropulse repetition rate beam with charges of 100, 300, 500, and 1000 pC/b. However, the effects were much reduced at 100 pC/b. The measurements were based on HOM detector circuitry targeting the first and second dipole passbands, rf BPM bunch-by-bunch array data, imaging cameras, and a framing camera. Calculations reproduced the oscillation frequencies of the phenomena in the vertical case. In principle, these fundamental results may be scaled to cryomodule configurations of major accelerator facilities.