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Subjects with intellectual disability and familial need for full-time special education show regional brain alterations: a voxel-based morphometry study.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Pediatric Research
1530-0447
Publisher
Nature Publishing Group
Publication Date
Volume
66
Issue
3
Pages
306–311
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181b1bd6a
PMID: 19531975
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Subjects attending full-time special education (SE) often have multifactorial background for their cognitive impairment, and brain MRI may show nonspecific changes. As voxel-based morphometry reveals regional volume differences, we applied this method to 119 subjects with cognitive impairments and familial need for full-time SE--graded into three levels from specific disorders of cognitive processes (level 1) to intellectual disability (IQ <70; level 3)--and to 43 age-matched controls attending mainstream education (level 0). Subjects in SE groups had smaller global brain white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid, and total brain volume than controls. Compared with controls, subjects with intellectual disabilities in SE level 3 showed greater regional gray matter volumes bilaterally in the ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and smaller regional gray matter volumes in the left thalamus and cerebellar hemisphere. Further, they had greater WM volume in the left frontoparietal region and smaller WM volumes in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules. Subjects in SE level 1 and 2 groups showed the same tendency, but the results were nonsignificant. In conclusion, compared with controls, subjects with intellectual disabilities showed in voxel-based morphometry analysis several regional brain alterations.

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