A mycotoxin was extracted and purified from a strain of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans isolated from mouldy corn seeds harvested in a serious Keshan disease region in Shaanxi Province. The purification procedure involves water extraction, ion exchange chromatography, desalination and crystallization. Its UV spectrum, IR spectrum and NMR are identical with that of the moniliformin. The toxin is highly toxic to young Beijing ducklings. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of the duckling was changed immediately after feeding with moniliformin. The cardiac muscle cells of Beijing ducklings were injured by the toxin. Toxicity may be alleviated to certain extent by applying adequate dosage of Selenium (3.18 X 10(-10) mol/L of H2SeO4) prior to moniliformin treatment. The permeability of the cardic muscle cells of the rats and young ducklings was damaged posterior to the injection of the toxin as tested by extracellular marcromolecular tracer (HRP) method. The relationship between moniliformin and Keshan disease was discussed. We consider that the moniliformin may be the causal agent of the disease.