The Study was based on secondary data as well as on information provided by relevant government and non-government agricultural units at the Federal and states levels. The Study is intended to provide an analytical basis for recommending policy actions towards revitalizing inclusive and sustainable small-scale agriculture sub-sector. The Study starts by providing background information about the agro-ecology of the country, the development and evolution of the agriculture sector, the changing strategic focus and the current challenges facing the country. It also discusses the typology of small-scale farming systems in the country and highlights the livelihood associated with them. The Study also provides description of the production patterns and the role and challenges facing the six identified small-scale farming systems, namely small-scale sub-systems for rain-fed crop production, animal production, irrigated agriculture, semi-mechanized rain-fed agriculture, forestry and fishery. The analysis was situated in the changing local and global contexts in which small-scale agriculture. The constraints and challenges the subsector is facing and the policy responses to these constraints are discussed prior to proposing policy recommendations.