The molecular structure of polyhydroxybutyrate from hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that the degree of crystallinity of various samples depends little on the conditions of their preparation and is equal to 0.62-0.76. The molecular structure of solid samples and solution of polyhydroxybutyrate in chloroform were studied by the NMR and EPR methods. The conclusion is made that the molecular structure of polyhydroxybutyrate does not depend on the features of the strain and conditions of carbon nutrition of microorganisms producing polyhydroxybutyrate. Defects induced by gamma-radiation in polyhydroxybutyrate were studied. Free radicals were isolated, and their structure was decoded.