Background The study was planned to show the status of indoor microorganisms and the status of the reduction device in the military dog clinic. Methods Airborne microbes were analyzed according to the number of daily patient canines. For identification of bacteria, sampled bacteria was identified using VITEK®2 and molecular method. The status of indoor microorganisms according to the operation of the ventilation system was analyzed. Results Airborne bacteria and fungi concentrations were 1000.6 ± 800.7 CFU/m3 and 324.7 ± 245.8 CFU/m3. In the analysis using automated identification system, based on fluorescence biochemical test, VITEK®2, mainly human pathogenic bacteria were identified. The three most frequently isolated genera were Kocuria (26.6%), Staphylococcus (24.48%), and Granulicatella (12.7%). The results analyzed by molecular method were detected in the order of Kocuria (22.6%), followed by Macrococcus (18.1%), Glutamicibacter (11.1%), and so on. When the ventilation system was operated appropriately, the airborne bacteria and fungi level were significantly decreased. Conclusion Airborne bacteria in the clinic tend to increase with the number of canines. Human pathogenic bacteria were mainly detected in VITEK®2, and relatively various bacteria were detected in molecular analysis. A decrease in the level of bacteria and fungi was observed with proper operation of the ventilation system.