The role of individual matrix proteins in avian eggshell calcification is poorly understood despite numerous attempts to characterize and localize their presence in the eggshell matrix. Ansocalcin, the major matrix protein from goose eggshell, was found to induce the formation of calcite crystal aggregates under in vitro. Owing to its high similarity with the chicken eggshell matrix protein ovocleidin 17 (OC-17), a comparative investigation has been carried out to understand the structure-function relationship. RP-HPLC shows that ansocalcin is the major component in extracts of goose eggshells before and after bleach treatment. However, OC-17 was observed in minute quantities in the extract of bleach-treated chicken eggshells. In vitro crystal growth experiments showed that OC-17 and ansocalcin interact differently with the calcite crystals formed. Circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering studies showed that, under the conditions used in our experiments, OC-17 does not aggregate in solution or induce the nucleation of calcite aggregates in the concentration range used. These observations indicate that OC-17 and ansocalcin play different roles in the eggshell calcification. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the comparison of properties of homologous eggshell proteins that belong to the same phylogeny.